**Evaporative towers** are water consuming, due to water losses caused principally by three factors:

- Evaporation
- Drag
- Wastewater purge

The first one is related to the basic functioning principle of towers itself, because cooling of working fluids is achieved thanks to the **heat removal attained by evaporation of water**. It is therefore impossible to avoid water losses due to evaporation. But it is instead possible to **reduce as much as possible losses caused by drag and wastewater purge**, adopting some smart tricks.

The amount of water loss due to **drag** depends on the** speed of air’s ejection**, and also relays on the efficiency of the **droplets separators** at the output (referred to the air flow) of the distribution nozzles group. The latest generation of droplets separators are able to limit drag water losses under 0,05% of the overall amount of the water cooled by an evaporative tower.

The amount of **purge water** is instead connected to the amount of the refilling water and also to the **quality of the water treatment system**. With a good approximation, the amount of purge water can be calculated as equal to the amount of water loss due to the evaporation process.

Hence, the **overall water consumption of an evaporative tower** can be considered as the sum of drag loss plus twice the water loss caused by evaporation.